Journal Papers on Cloud Computing & Web Services
  1. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and A. Ramirez-Nafarrate, “Collaborative Agents for Distributed Load Management in Cloud Data Centers using Live Migration of Virtual Machines,” IEEE Transactions on Services Computing, Vol. 8(6), 2015, pp. 916-929 [JCR/SCI-E indexed]. Ranked 4th in impact factor in the category of COMPUTER SCIENCE, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING – 2016 JCR.

    Load management in cloud data centers must take into account 1) hardware diversity of hosts, 2) heterogeneous user requirements, 3) volatile resource usage profiles of virtual machines (VMs), 4) fluctuating load patterns, and 5) energy consumption. This work proposes distributed problem solving techniques for load management in data centers supported by VM live migration. Collaborative agents are endowed with a load balancing protocol and an energy-aware consolidation protocol to balance and consolidate heterogeneous loads in a distributed manner while reducing energy consumption costs. Agents are provided with 1) policies for deciding when to migrate VMs, 2) a set of heuristics for determining the VMs to be migrated, 3) a set of heuristics for determining where to migrate VMs, and 4) policies for determining when to turn off/on hosts. This paper also proposes a novel load balancing heuristic that migrates the VMs causing the largest resource usage imbalance from overloaded hosts to underutilized hosts whose resource usage imbalances are reduced the most by hosting the VMs. Empirical results show that agents adopting the distributed problem solving techniques are efficient and effective in balancing data centers, consolidating heterogeneous loads, and carrying out energy-aware server consolidation./td>
  2. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and K.M. Sim, “Agent-based Cloud Bag-of-Tasks Execution,” Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 104, 2015, pp. 17-31 [JCR/SCI-E indexed].

    Bag-of-tasks (BoTs) applications are highly parallel, unconnected and unordered tasks. Since BoT executions often require costly investments in computing infrastructures, Clouds offer an economical solution to BoT executions. Cloud BoT executions involve (1) allocating and deallocating heterogeneous resources with possibly different price rates from multiple Cloud providers, (2) distributing BoT execution across multiple, distributed resources, and (3) coordinating self-interested Cloud participants. This paper proposes a novel agent-based Cloud BoT execution tool (CloudAgent) supported by a 4-stage agent-based protocol capable of dynamically coordinating autonomous Cloud participants to concurrently execute BoTs in multiple Clouds in a parallel manner. CloudAgent is endowed with an autonomous agent-based resource provisioning system supported by the contract net protocol to dynamically allocate resources based on hourly cost rates from multiple Cloud providers. In addition, CloudAgent is also equipped with an agent-based resource deallocation system that autonomously and dynamically deallocates resources assigned to BoT executions. Empirical results show that CloudAgent can efficiently handle concurrent BoT executions, bear low BoT execution costs, and effectively scale.
  3. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and A. Ramirez-Nafarrate, “Agent-based Load Balancing in Cloud Data Centers,” Cluster Computing, Vol. 18(3), 2015, pp. 1041-1062 [JCR/SCI-E indexed].

    Cloud data centers are generally composed of heterogeneous commodity servers hosting multiple virtual machines (VMs) with potentially different specifications and fluctuating resource usages. This may cause a resource usage imbalance within servers that may result in performance degradation and violations to service level agreements. This work proposes a collaborative agent-based problem solving technique capable of balancing workloads across commodity, heterogeneous servers by making use of VM live migration. The agents are endowed with (i) migration heuristics to determine which VMs should be migrated and their destination hosts, (ii) migration policies to decide when VMs should be migrated, (iii) VM acceptance policies to determine which VMs should be hosted, and (iv) front-end load balancing heuristics. The results show that agents, through autonomous and dynamic collaboration, can efficiently balance loads in a distributed manner outperforming centralized approaches with a performance comparable to commercial solutions, namely Red Hat, while migrating fewer VMs.
  4. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and K.M. Sim, “Agent-based Cloud Service Composition,” Applied Intelligence, Vol. 38(3), 2013, pp. 436-464 [JCR/SCI-E indexed].

    Service composition in multi-Cloud environments must coordinate self-interested participants, (re)configure distributed services, and deal with incomplete information about Cloud providers and their services. This work proposes an agent-based approach to compose services in multi-Cloud environments for different types of Cloud services: one-time virtualized services, e.g., processing a rendering job, persistent virtualized services, e.g., infrastructure-as-a-service scenarios, vertical services, e.g., integrating homogenous services, and horizontal services, e.g., integrating heterogeneous services. Agents are endowed with a semi-recursive contract net protocol and service capability tables (information catalogs about Cloud participants) to compose services based on consumer requirements. Empirical results obtained from an agent-based testbed show that agents in this work can: successfully compose services to satisfy service requirements based on dynamic fees, effectively cope with constantly changing consumers’ service needs that trigger updates, and compose services in multiple Clouds even with incomplete information about Cloud participants.
  5. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and K.M. Sim, “A Family of Heuristics for Agent-based Elastic Cloud Bag-of-Tasks Concurrent Scheduling,” Future Generation Computer Systems, Vol. 29(7), 2013, pp. 1682-1699 [JCR/SCI-E indexed]. Ranked 10th in impact factor in the category of COMPUTER SCIENCE, THEORY & METHODS – 2016 JCR. Paper included in the SciVerse ScienceDirect Top 25 Hottest Articles (from April to June 2012) of Computer Science published in Future Generation Computer Systems.

    The scheduling and execution of bag-of-tasks applications (BoTs) in Clouds is performed on sets of virtualized Cloud resources that start being exhausted right after their allocation disregarding whether tasks are being executed. In addition, BoTs may be executed in potentially heterogeneous sets of Cloud resources, which may be either previously allocated for a different and fixed number of hours or dynamically reallocated as needed. In this paper, a family of 14 scheduling heuristics for concurrently executing BoTs in Cloud environments is proposed. The Cloud scheduling heuristics are adapted to the resource allocation settings (e.g., 1-hour time slots) of Clouds by focusing on maximizing Cloud resource utilization based on the remaining allocation times of Cloud resources. Cloud scheduling heuristics supported by information about BoT tasks (e.g., task size) and/or Cloud resource performances are proposed. Additionally, scheduling heuristics that require no information of either Cloud resources or tasks are also proposed. The Cloud scheduling heuristics support the dynamic inclusion of new Cloud resources while scheduling and executing a given BoT without rescheduling. Furthermore, an elastic Cloud resource allocation mechanism that autonomously and dynamically reallocates Cloud resources on demand to BoT executions is proposed. Moreover, an agent-based Cloud BoT scheduling approach that supports concurrent and parallel scheduling and execution of BoTs, and concurrent and parallel dynamic composition of Cloud resources (by making use of the well-known contract net protocol) from multiple and distributed Cloud providers is designed and implemented. Empirical results show that BoTs can be (i) efficiently executed by attaining similar (in some cases shorter) makespans to commonly used benchmark heuristics (e.g., Max–min), (ii) effectively executed by achieving a 100% success execution rate even with high BoT execution request rates and executing BoTs in a concurrent and parallel manner, and that (iii) BoTs are economically executed by elastically reallocating Cloud resources on demand.
  6. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and K.M. Sim, “GA-based Cloud Resource Estimation for Agent-based Execution of Bag-of-tasks Applications,” Information Systems Frontiers, Vol. 14 (4), 2012, pp. 925-951. [JCR/SCI-E indexed].

    Executing bag-of-tasks applications in multiple Cloud environments while satisfying both consumers’ budgets and deadlines poses the following challenges: How many resources and how many hours should be allocated? What types of resources are required? How to coordinate the distributed execution of bag-of-tasks applications in resources composed from multiple Cloud providers?. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for estimating suboptimal sets of resources and an agent-based approach for executing bag-of-tasks applications simultaneously constrained by budgets and deadlines. Agents (endowed with distributed algorithms) compose resources and coordinate the execution of bag-of-tasks applications. Empirical results demonstrate that the genetic algorithm can autonomously estimate sets of resources to execute budget-constrained and deadline-constrained bag-of-tasks applications composed of more economical (but slower) resources in the presence of loose deadlines, and more powerful (but more expensive) resources in the presence of large budgets. Furthermore, agents can efficiently and successfully execute randomly generated bag-of-tasks applications in multi-Cloud environments.
  7. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and K.M. Sim, “Agent-based Cloud Workflow Execution,” Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering, Vol. 19(1), 2012, pp. 39-56. [JCR/SCI-E indexed]. Ranked 1st in impact factor in the category of ENGINEERING, MULTIDISCIPLINARY – 2016 JCR.

    Cloud computing offers an economical and feasible solution for scientific workflow applications requiring large amounts of computational resources and expensive hardware. Supporting Cloud workflow execution involves: (i) allocating and composing a collection of Cloud resources, and (ii) coordinating distributed and self-interested participants. The contributions of this research are: (i) proposing an agent-based approach for supporting workflow execution in one or multiple Clouds, (ii) defining Petri-net based methodologies to design workflows and Cloud resources that sustain concurrent and parallel management of workflows, (iii) implementing an agent-based testbed to simulate distributed workflow execution, and (iv) providing empirical evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of agent-based Cloud workflow execution. The agents are endowed with distributed algorithms, e.g., contract net protocol, to allocate and compose Cloud resources based on workflow requirements. Simulation results demonstrated that: (i) Agents effectively executed (with a 100% success rate) workflows autonomously, even when dealing with concurrent workflow executions, (ii) task parallelization was efficiently achieved in randomly created workflows with different levels of parallelism and ordering constraints, (iii) workflow execution was efficiently achieved since the makespan and number of messages exchanged increased linearly with the number of tasks./td>
  8. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, F. Ramos, and J.-L. Koning, “An Obligation-based Framework for Web Service Composition via Agent Conversations,” Web Intelligence and Agent Systems: An International Journal, Vol. 10(2), 2012, pp. 135-150.

    This paper presents a framework for web service composition based on social norms, particularly obligations. Web services are implemented and orchestrated by agents. Agent interaction is defined by means of obligations. Then, obligation-based agent conversations are translated into a web service composition method. Web services' functionalities are conceived as a set of actions with preconditions and effects, both expressed in terms of obligations that are adopted by agents as goals. In addition, an agent communication language that defines how messages affect agents' states, and as a consequence, the access to the services is presented. Moreover, a method for automatically creating generic composer agents is proposed. Composer agents are capable of managing and composing web services by means of inducing obligations to agents that implement and orchestrate web services./td>
  9. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and F. Ramos, “Exception Handling in Pervasive Service Composition using Normative Agents,” Journal of Web Engineering, Vol. 10(3), 2011, pp. 175-196. [JCR/SCI-E indexed].

    The full integration of pervasive computing services into daily life leads to smart spaces with a wide range of intelligent devices that must be dynamically composed to provide a transparent service to users. To achieve this, pervasive services have to coordinate among themselves in both an automated and autonomous manner, with the aim of satisfying complex user requirements that no single service can fulfill. However, existing pervasive environments are normally ad-hoc and isolated systems incapable of: 1) reacting to dynamic and unforeseen situations that may raise exceptions, and 2) collaborating with pervasive services beyond their physical limits. The contributions of this work are: 1) Proposing a normative agent-based service composition method capable of handling exceptions in open pervasive systems. 2) Using the Web as the underlying infrastructure where pervasive services provided by either smart devices or web services can coexist and interact with each other. 3) Providing a modular and hierarchical agent coordination method based on virtual organizations to sustain coordination among agents belonging to multiple organizations (smart spaces). 4) Integrating exception handling mechanisms based on social norms and formalized by event calculus predicates into virtual organizations to support and guide exception handling in both a dynamic and autonomous manner.
  10. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, J. Zaragoza, F. Ramos, J.-L, Koning, M. Ramos, and M. Siller. “Integration of Agricultural Information Systems assisted by Knowledge,” Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing, Vol. 16(6), 2010, pp. 913-922. [JCR/SCI-E indexed].

    Nowadays, agricultural information systems that deal with environmental monitoring, geographic information, atmospheric conditions, market statistics, among others, have been developed. Although these systems assist the decision making process, their potential is still limited, because the advantages of integrating them have been left aside. How such systems interact and how to obtain a general consistent view of the information from these different sources is a complex challenge. By achieving this integration, higher productivity at lower production costs will be promoted. Herein, we make use of a multi-agent system approach enhanced with ontologies to integrate such systems. We propose an interaction framework based on social norms, where each agent implements a web service, which provides access to an agricultural information system. Copyright © 2010, TSI ® Press Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Journal Papers on Computer Applications
  1. S.F. Góngora y Moreno, J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, “Collective action in Organizational Structures,” Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, Vol. ?(?), 2017, pp. ?-? [JCR/SCI-E indexed].

    Public goods games played by a group of individuals collectively performing actions towards a common interest characterize social dilemmas where both competition and cooperation are present. By using agent-based simulation, this paper investigates how collective action in the form of repeated n-person linear public goods games is affected when the interaction of individuals is driven by the underlying hierarchical structure of an organization. The proposed agent-based simulation model is based on generally known empirical findings about public goods games and takes into account that individuals may change their profiles from conditional cooperators to rational egoists or vice versa. To do so, a fuzzy logic system was designed to allow the cumulative modification of agents’ profiles in the presence of vague variables such as individuals’ attitude towards group pressure and/or their perception about the cooperation of others. From the simulation results, it can be concluded that collective action is affected by the structural characteristics of hierarchical organizations. The major findings are as follows: (1) Cooperation in organizational structures is fostered when there is a collegial model defining the structure of the punishment mechanisms employed by organizations. (2) Having multiple, and small organizational units fosters group pressure and highlights the positive perception about the cooperation of others, resulting in organizations achieving relatively high aggregate contribution levels. (3) The greater the number of levels, the higher the aggregate contribution level of an organization when effective sanctioning systems are introduced.
  2. A. Possani-Espinosa, J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and I. Vargas Gordillo, “Determining Personality Traits of Racing Game Players using the Open Racing Car Simulator: Toward Believable Virtual Drivers,” Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds, Vol. 28(2), 2017, pp. 1-14 [JCR/SCI indexed].

    Believable artificial opponents, for example, believable virtual drivers, are fundamental to engage players and make (car racing) video games more entertaining. This paper lays the foundations for the design of believable virtual drivers by proposing a methodology for profiling players using the open racing car simulator. Data collected from 125 players about their driving behaviors and personality traits give insights into how personality traits should model the behavior of believable virtual drivers. The data analysis was conducted using a correlation analysis and the J48 decision tree algorithm. Empirical evidence shows that goal-oriented driving behaviors can be used to determine personality traits of players. In addition, this work also (i) gives preliminary insights into the relationship between the driving behavior and personality of racing game players and actual car drivers; and (ii) presents evidence of the relevance of gender as a predictor of personality traits of racing game players.
  3. L.-F. Rodríguez, J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and F. Ramos, “Modeling the Interaction of Emotion and Cognition in Autonomous Agents,” Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, Vol. 17, 2016, pp. 57-70 [JCR/SCI-E indexed].

    A major goal in various fields has been the development of believable, intelligent, and social Autonomous Agents (AAs) whose behavior is influenced by affective signals. This endeavor has promoted the development of cognitive architectures for AAs that incorporate processes that imitate those of human cognition and emotions. However, there is still a need for appropriate environments in such agent architectures for the modeling of the interaction between emotional and cognitive components. In this paper, we address the following research question: how to model the interaction of emotion and cognition in agent architectures so that AAs are capable of generating consistent emotional states and displaying believable emotional behaviors. We address this problem from the perspective of the development of Computational Models of Emotions (CMEs). In particular, we propose an integrative framework for constructing CMEs whose design is focused on two main aspects: (1) the modeling of the underlying mechanisms of emotions, and (2) the incorporation of input and output interfaces that facilitate the interaction between affective processes implemented in CMEs and cognitive processes implemented in agent architectures.
  4. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and L.-F. Rodríguez, “Social Determinants of Police Corruption: Towards Public Policies for the Prevention of Police Corruption,” Policy Studies, Vol. 37(3), 2016, pp. 216-235 [JCR/SSCI indexed].

    Strategies for the prevention of police corruption, for example, bribery, commonly neglects its social dimension in spite of the fact that police corruption has societal causes and undertaking a reform of the police requires, to some extent, reforming society. In this paper, we built a decision tree from socioeconomic profiles of 103 countries classified according to their level of police corruption using data from the United Nations Statistics Division and Transparency International. From the rules of the resultant decision tree, we identified and analyzed social determinants of police corruption to assist policy-makers in designing societal level strategies to control police corruption by improving socioeconomic conditions. We found that school life expectancy, involvement of women in society, economic development, and work-related indicators are relevant to police corruption. Moreover, empirical results indicate that countries should gradually improve social indicators to reduce police corruption.
  5. O. Cairo, J. Sendra, and J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, "Crowdsourcing Information for Knowledge-based Design of Routes for Unscheduled Public Transport Trips,” Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 19(3), 2015, pp. 626-640 [JCR/SSCI indexed].

    The purpose of this paper is to devise a crowdsourcing methodology for acquiring and exploiting knowledge to profile unscheduled transport networks for design of efficient routes for public transport trips. This paper analyzes daily travel itineraries within Mexico City provided by 610 public transport users. In addition, a statistical analysis of quality-of-service parameters of the public transport systems of Mexico City was also conducted. From the statistical analysis, a knowledge base was consolidated to characterize the unscheduled public transport network of Mexico City. Then, by using a heuristic search algorithm for finding routes, public transport users are provided with efficient routes for their trips. The findings of the paper are as follows. A crowdsourcing methodology can be used to characterize complex and unscheduled transport networks. In addition, the knowledge of the crowds can be used to devise efficient routes for trips (using public transport) within a city. Moreover, the design of routes for trips can be automated by SmartPaths, a mobile application for public transport navigation. The data collected from the public transport users of Mexico City may vary through the year. The significance and novelty is that the present work is the earliest effort in making use of a crowdsourcing approach for profiling unscheduled public transport networks to design efficient routes for public transport trips.
  6. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and L.-F. Rodríguez, “Corruptible Social Agents,” Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds, Vol. 27(2), 2016, pp. 89-102 [JCR/SCI indexed].

    Agent-based virtual simulations of social systems susceptible to corruption (e.g., police agencies) require agents capable of exhibiting corruptible behaviors to achieve realistic simulations and enable the analysis of corruption as a social problem. This paper proposes a formal belief-desire-intention framework supported by the functional event calculus and fuzzy logic for modeling corruption based on the integrity level of social agents and the influence of corrupters on them. Corruptible social agents are endowed with beliefs, desires, intentions, and corrupt-prone plans to achieve their desires. This paper also proposes a fuzzy logic system to define the level of impact of corruption-related events on the degree of belief in the truth of anti-corruption factors (e.g., the integrity of the leader of an organization). Moreover, an agent-based model of corruption supported by the proposed belief-desire-intention framework and the fuzzy logic system was devised and implemented. Results obtained from agent-based simulations are consistent with actual macro-level patterns of corruption reported in the literature. The simulation results show that (i) the bribery rate increases as more external entities attempt to bribe agents and (ii) the more anti-corruption factors agents believe to be true, the less prone to perpetrate acts of corruption.


International Conference Papers
  1. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and E. Lopez-Neri, “Cognitive Computing: A Brief Survey and Open Research Challenges,” in: Proc. of the 2nd ACIS International Conference on Computational Science and Intelligence, Japan, 2015, pp. 328-333.

    Cognitive computing is a multidisciplinary field of research aiming at devising computational models and decision making mechanisms based on the neurobiological processes of the brain, cognitive sciences, and psychology. The objective of cognitive computational models is to endow computer systems with the faculties of knowing, thinking, and feeling. The major contributions of this survey include (i) giving insights into cognitive computing by listing and describing its definitions, related fields, and terms, (ii) classifying current research on cognitive computing according to its objectives, (iii) presenting a concise review of cognitive computing approaches, and (iv) identifying the open research issues in the area of cognitive computing.
  2. E. Lopez-Neri and J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, “Event-Oriented Framework for Smart Transportation,” in: Proc. of the 1st IEEE International Smart Cities Conference, Mexico, 2015, pp. 1-6.

    In this paper, an event-oriented modeling methodology for agent-based smart transportation systems supported by the n-LNS Petri net formalism is proposed. The methodology allows modeling and incorporating capabilities of smart transportation systems as well as modeling smart transportation systems as an event-oriented system of systems. The proposed framework makes use of three hierarchical levels of abstraction to describe smart transportation systems: (i) the highest level models a transportation network; (ii) the middle level models agents (e.g., cars); and (iii) the lowest level models individual agent behaviors (e.g., driving behaviors). In doing so, the components of an agent-based smart transportation system and their concurrent interrelationships are formally defined, which enables the quantitative evaluation of smart transportation systems by performing discrete-event simulations.
  3. A. Possani-Espinosa, J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and I. Vargas Gordillo, “Determining Personality Traits from Goal-Oriented Driving Behaviors: Toward Believable Virtual Drivers,” in: Proc. of the 28th Annual Conference on Computer Animation and Social Agents, Singapore, 2015, pp. 43-46.

    This paper lays the foundations for the design of believable virtual drivers by proposing a methodology for profiling players using the open racing car simulator. Data collected from fifty-nine players about their driving behaviors and personality traits give insights into how personality traits should affect the behavior of believable virtual drivers. The data analysis was conducted using the J48 decision tree algorithm. Empirical evidence shows that goal-oriented driving behaviors can be used to determine whether players are either introvert or extravert.
  4. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and A. Gómez de Silva Garza, “Multi-agent Simulation of Perception of Safety from Crime,” in: Proc. of the 29th Symposium On Applied Computing, Korea, 2014, pp. 573-578. Acceptance rate: 24%.

    Public perception of safety from crime and actual crime statistics are often mismatched. Perception of safety from crime is a social phenomenon determined and affected by (i) the mass media broadcasting news dominated by violent content, and (ii) the structural composition of the society, e.g., its socioeconomic characteristics. This paper proposes an agent-based simulation framework to analyze and study public perception of safety from crime and the effects of the mass media on safety perception. Agent-based models for (i) information sources, i.e., mass media outlets, and (ii) citizens are proposed. In addition, social interaction (and its influence on the perception of safety) is modeled by providing citizen agents with a network of acquaintances to/from which citizen agents may transmit/receive crime-related news. Experimental results show the feasibility of simulating perception of safety from crime by obtaining simulation results consistent with generally known and accepted macro-level patterns of safety perception.
  5. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and A. Ramirez-Nafarrate, “Policy-Based Agents for Virtual Machine Migration in Cloud Data Centers,” in: Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, USA, 2013, pp. 603-610.

    Cloud data centers are networked server farms commonly composed of heterogeneous servers with a wide variety of computing capacities. Virtualization technology, in Cloud data centers, has improved server utilization and server consolidation. However, virtual machines may require unbalanced levels of computing resources (e.g., a virtual machine running a compute-intensive application with low memory requirements) causing resource usage imbalances within physical servers. In this paper, an agent-based distributed approach capable of balancing different types of workloads (e.g., memory workload) by using virtual machine live migration is proposed. Agents acting as server managers are equipped with 1) a collaborative workload balancing protocol, and 2) a set of workload balancing policies (e.g., resource usage migration thresholds and virtual machine migration heuristics) to simultaneously consider both server heterogeneity and virtual machine heterogeneity. The experimental results show that policy-based workload balancing is effectively achieved despite dealing with server heterogeneity and heterogeneous workloads.
  6. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, H. Orozco-Aguirre, and V. Landassuri-Moreno, “Agent-based Simulation of Crime,” in: Proc. of the 12th Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Mexico, 2013, pp. 24-29.

    The effects of crime are diverse and complex, ranging from psychological and physical traumas faced by crime victims, to negative impacts on the economy of a whole nation. In this paper, an agent-based crime simulation framework to analyze crime and its causes is proposed and implemented. The agent-based simulation framework models and simulates both 1) crime events as a consequence of a set of interrelated social and individual-level crime factors, and 2) crime opportunities, i.e., combinations of circumstances that enable a person to commit a crime. The crime factors and design of agent models are supported by, and based on, existing criminological literature. In addition, the simulation results are validated and compared with macro-level crime patterns reported by various criminological research efforts.
  7. A. Ramirez-Nafarrate and J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, “An agent-based simulation framework to analyze the prevalence of child obesity,” in: Proc. of the Winter Simulation Conference, USA, 2013, pp. 2330-2339.

    Child obesity is a public health problem that is of concern of several countries around the world. Long-term effects of child obesity include prevalence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and heart-related illnesses. This paper presents an agent-based simulation framework to analyze the evolution of obesity in school-age children. In particular, in this paper we evaluate the impact of physical activity on the prevalence of child obesity using an agent-based simulation model. Simulation results suggest that the fraction of overweight and obese children at the end of elementary school can be reduced by doing physical activity with moderate intensity.
  8. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and K.M. Sim, “A Family of Heuristics for Agent-based Cloud Bag-of-Tasks Scheduling,” in: Proc. of the International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery, China, 2011, pp. 416-423. Acceptance rate 24%.

    The scheduling of bag-of-tasks applications (BoTs) in Clouds deal with fixed predefined allocation slots of Cloud resources, e.g., 1-hour time slots, that start being exhausted right after their allocation disregarding whether tasks are being executed or not. In addition, Cloud resources may be allocated for several hours to execute BoTs. However, some resource types (e.g., clusters) may be allocated for only a few hours, while others (e.g., CPU instances) may be allocated for several hours, so BoTs may be executed in such heterogeneous sets of Cloud resources (probably) allocated for a different number of hours. In this paper, a family of 15 scheduling heuristics consisting of two phases: (i) task ordering and (ii) task mapping (based on the remaining allocation times of Cloud resources) is proposed. The heuristics aim to maximize resource utilization while executing BoTs in heterogeneous sets of Cloud resources allocated for different numbers of hours. Cloud resources for executing BoTs are dynamically composed by adopting the contract net protocol. In addition, an agent-based testbed for Cloud BoT scheduling and execution was implemented. Simulation results show that the agents are capable of successfully and efficiently scheduling and executing BoTs in sets of Cloud resources composed from multiple Cloud environments.
  9. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and K.M. Sim, “Self-Organizing Agents for Service Composition in Cloud Computing,” in: Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science, USA, 2010, pp. 59-66. Acceptance rate: 25%.

    In Cloud service composition, collaboration between brokers and service providers is essential to promptly satisfy incoming Cloud consumer requirements. These requirements should be mapped to Cloud resources, which are accessed via web services, in an automated manner. However, distributed and constantly changing Cloud-computing environments pose new challenges to automated service composition such as: (i) dynamically contracting service providers, which set service fees on a supply-and-demand basis, and (ii) dealing with incomplete information regarding Cloud resources (e.g., location and providers). To address these issues, in this work, an agent-based Cloud service composition approach is presented. Cloud participants and resources are implemented and instantiated by agents. These agents sustain a three-layered self-organizing multi-agent system that establishes a Cloud service composition framework and an experimental test bed. The self-organizing agents make use of acquaintance networks and the contract net protocol to evolve and adapt Cloud service compositions. The experimental results indicate that service composition is efficiently achieved despite dealing with incomplete information as well as coping with dynamic service fees.
  10. H. Orozco, F. Ramos, V. Fernández, J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, M. Ramos, and D. Thalmann, “A Cognitive Model for Human Behavior Simulation in EBDI Virtual Humans,” in: Proc. of the International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence, Spain, Vol. 2, 2010, pp. 104-111.

    In this paper, we present a new cognitive model based on Psychology for simulating human behavior in realistic virtual humans. To do this, we use the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), taking into account the personality scales defined in it to endow the virtual humans with a real personality and form a set of fuzzy rules used to obtain the emotional influences that modify virtual humans' affective state according to their personality and the events they perceive from their environment. We also implemented an EBDI-based mechanism by using an event calculus definition. This mechanism allows virtual humans to perform actions based on their current emotional state, their beliefs, their desires and their intentions. These actions define virtual humans' behavior for each situation they experience in the environment. As case study, we present an scenario where a male virtual human with a psychopathic personality and a female virtual human with a hysteric personality are interacting in a real way.
  11. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, F. Ramos, and J.-L. Koning, “Obligation-based Agent Conversations for Semantic Web Service Composition,” in: Proc. of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Joint Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology, Italy, Vol. 1, 2009, pp. 411-417. Acceptance rate: 16%.

    We deal with composition of semantic web services to which access is controlled by agents. We propose a conversation-based web service composition method. We conceive web services as actions with preconditions and effects, expressed in terms of social norms, particularly obligations. We argue that the inclusion of obligation-based agents' conversations aide to lead the composition of services. In order to achieve this, we introduce an agent communication language that defines how messages affect agents' state, and thus, the access to their services. We also propose a method to automatically create a generic composer agent that is able to manage and compose web services, by means of inducing obligations to their participants.
  12. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, J.-L. Koning, and F. Ramos, “An Obligation Approach for Exception Handling in Interaction Protocols,” in: Proc. of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Joint Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology - WLIAMAS, Italy, Vol. 3, 2009, pp. 497-500. Acceptance rate: 34.7%.

    Given the dynamic interaction presented in multiagent systems, the occurrence of exceptions in interaction protocols is frequent, and therefore a critical issue. However, current approaches for designing interaction protocols lack semantics to direct the exchange of messages, when exceptions are raised. Here, we propose modeling exception handlers by means of obligations, which are social norms that provide a semantic layer that helps to compose and evaluate exception handlers.
  13. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, F. Ramos, and J.-L. Koning, “Obligations as Constrainers, Descriptors, and Linkers of Open System of Systems,” in: Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, USA, 2009, pp. 1-6.

    Collaboration among independent systems to achieve a common objective, which a system alone could not accomplish by itself, requires dynamic composition of the participant systems, in addition to mechanisms for leading the interaction of the resultant system of systems. Here is proposed to model system of systems using a multi-agent system approach, where agents represent stakeholders of the systems. Systems are described and defined in terms of social norms, particularly obligations. In order to assemble a set of systems to construct a system of systems, a system interface is defined; such interface establishes what obligations can be assigned to a system, as well as what obligations can assign the system to other systems. The modeling methodology is component based, where each system is a component, and the composition of the systems gives place to the emergence of a system of systems.
  14. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, F. Ramos, and H. Unger, “User Authentication via Mouse Biometrics and the usage of Graphic User Interfaces: An Application Approach,” in: Proc. of the International Conference on Security and Management, USA, CSREA Press, 2007, pp. 76-82. Acceptance rate: 28%.

    In this paper, we propose an authentication mechanism supported by a mouse-based behavioural biometric and the usage of graphic user interfaces.


Book Chapters
  1. F. Aguilar-Reyes, J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, “A taxonomy of workflow scheduling algorithms,” in: C. J. Barrios Hernandez, I. Gitler, J. Klapp, (eds.), High Performance Computing, CCIS 697, Springer, Cham, 2017, pp. 104-115.

    A workflow is a set of steps or tasks that model the execution of a process, e.g., protein annotation, invoice generation and composition of astronomical images. Workflow applications commonly require large computational resources. Hence, distributed computing approaches (such as Grid and Cloud computing) emerge as a feasible solution to execute them. Two important factors for executing workflows in distributed computing platforms are (1) workflow scheduling and (2) resource allocation. As a consequence, there is a myriad of workflow scheduling algorithms that map workflow tasks to distributed resources subject to task dependencies, time and budget constraints. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of workflow scheduling algorithms, which categorizes the algorithms into (1) best-effort algorithms (including heuristics, metaheuristics, and approximation algorithms) and (2) quality-of-service algorithms (including budget-constrained, deadline-constrained and algorithms simultaneously constrained by deadline and budget). In addition, a workflow engine simulator was developed to quantitatively compare the performance of scheduling algorithms.
  2. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and E. Lopez-Neri, “Modeling social deviance in Artificial Agent Societies,” in: M. Rovatsos, G. Vouros, V. Julian (eds.), Multi-Agent Systems and Agreement Technologies, LNAI 9571, Springer 2016, pp. 287-302.

    Rule-governed artificial agent societies consisting of autonomous members are susceptible to rule violations, which can be seen as the acts of agents exercising their autonomy. As a consequence, modeling and allowing deviance is relevant, in particular, when artificial agent societies are used as the basis for agent-based social simulation. This work proposes a belief framework for modeling social deviance in artificial agent societies by taking into account both endogenous and exogenous factors contributing to rule compliance. The objective of the belief framework is to support the simulation of social environments where agents are susceptible to adopt rule-breaking behaviors. In this work, endogenous, exogenous and hybrid decision models supported by the event calculus formalism were implemented in an agent-based simulation model. Finally, a series of simulations was conducted in order to perform a sensitivity analysis of the agent-based simulation model.
  3. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and K.M. Sim, “Agents for Cloud Resource Allocation: an Amazon EC2 Case Study,”  in: T. H. Kim, et al., (eds.), Grid and Distributed Computing, CCIS 261, Springer, 2011, pp. 544-553.

    Infrastructure-as-a-service consumers are presented with numerous Cloud providers with a wide variety of resources. However, consumers are faced with providers that may offer (even similar) resources at different hourly cost rates, and also that no single provider may have matching resource capabilities to fulfill a highly heterogeneous set of requirements. This work proposes an agent-based approach endowed with the well-known contract net protocol for allocating heterogeneous resources from multiple Cloud providers while using the most economical resources. The contributions of this paper are: (i) devising an agent-based architecture for resource allocation in multi-Cloud environments, and (ii) implementing the agent-based Cloud resource allocation mechanism in commercial Clouds using Amazon EC2 as a case study. The Amazon EC2 case study shows that agents can autonomously allocate heterogeneous resources from multiple Cloud providers while dynamically sampling resources’ allocation cost.
  4. H. Orozco, F. Ramos, D. Thalmann, V. Fernández, and J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, “A Behavior Model based on Personality and Emotional Intelligence for Virtual Humans,” Gianluca Mura (eds.), Metaplasticity in Virtual Worlds: Aesthetics and Semantics Concepts. IGI Global, 2010, pp. 142-164, ISBN 978-1-60960-077-8.

    In this chapter, we present a three-layered model based on the Triune Brain Model to simulate human brain functioning and human beings’ behavior in realistic virtual humans. In order to implement this model, we use the ten personality scales defined by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Emotional Competence Framework defined in the Emotional Intelligence Model to endow virtual humans with a real personality and emotional intelligence. In this model, we apply a set of fuzzy rules to change and regulate virtual humans’ affective state according to their personality, emotional and mood history, and events they perceive from the environment. We also implement an EBDI-based mechanism using the Event Calculus formalism. This mechanism allows virtual humans performing actions based on their current affective state, beliefs, desires and intentions. Thus, these intentions define virtual humans’ behavior for each situation they experience in the environment.
  5. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia and K.M. Sim, “Agent-based Service Composition in Cloud Computing,” in: T. H. Kim, et al., (eds.), Grid and Distributed Computing, Control and Automation, CCIS 121, Springer, 2010, pp. 1-10.

    In a Cloud-computing environment, consumers, brokers, and service providers interact to achieve their individual purposes. In this regard, service providers offer a pool of resources wrapped as web services, which should be composed by broker agents to provide a single virtualized service to Cloud consumers. In this study, an agent-based test bed for simulating Cloud-computing environments is developed. Each Cloud participant is represented by an agent, whose behavior is defined by means of colored Petri nets. The relationship between web services and service providers is modeled using object Petri nets. Both Petri net formalisms are combined to support a design methodology for defining concurrent and parallel service choreographies. This results in the creation of a dynamic agent-based service composition algorithm. The simulation results indicate that service composition is achieved with a linear time complexity despite dealing with interleaving choreographies and synchronization of heterogeneous services.
  6. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, J.-L. Koning, and F. Ramos, “From Obligations to Organizational Structures in Multi-Agent Systems,” in: T. D. Bui, T. V. Ho, and Q. T. Ha, Eds. Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, LNAI 5357, Springer, 2008, pp. 206-213.

    The achievement of common objectives in multi-agent systems is only possible through interaction and coordination; in order to implement both aspects in a effective manner, rules to direct the behavior of a group of agents are necessary, however, existing rules are usually static, inflexible, and inappropriate for large systems, where dynamic interaction takes place. We propose modeling agent behavior by means of obligations, utilized as social norms, delineating agents’ roles as independent components, which can be grouped into organizational structures. Moreover, such organizations can be deployed on a service oriented platform, where the composition of organizations leads to the creation of new services.


White papers
  1. A. De Obeso-Orendain, E. Lopez-Neri, J. Dominguez, and J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, “Smart People: Enhancing CCD citizens' engagement through data utilization,” IEEE Smart Cities, 2014.

    Providing the ability of making the most out of the considerable amount of data that is going to be produced once Ciudad Creativa Digital (CCD) comes alive is the purpose of the Analytics and Visualization (AAV) group. After identifying the elements of the CCD data ecosystem we describe the building blocks of our strategy. We also present a measure of Citizen Engagement that encompasses relevant aspects of the Smart People dimension of the European Smart City Model and outlines a proposal for using Complex Event Processing (CEP) as part of the Data Management layer of the Urban Operating System of CCD. To support our approach we are leveraging the expertise generated by the Universidad Del Valle de México SmartCampus, which will also function as a testbed to prove our concepts.


  1. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, V.M. Gonzalez, and P.C.K. Hung "Guest Editorial: Special Issue on Big Data Applications", International Journal of Web Services Research, Vol. 13(4), i-iii, 2016. [JCR/SCI-E indexed].
  2. P. Hofmann,  M.-C. Shan,  W. Chou, P. Chen, H. Jain, B. Carminati, L. Liu, E. Damiani, C.-H. Chi, W. Tan, J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, V.M. Gonzalez, P. Furtado, L. Bellatreche, S.-C. Huang, Z. Zheng, P.C.K. Hung, and S. McIntosh, “Message from the organizing committee”, in: Proc. of the 2014 IEEE International Congress on Big Data, USA, 2014, pp. xvii.
  3. M. Goul, I.-L. Yen, E. Ferrari, R. Kaliappa, P. Hung, B. Blake, O. Ezenwoye, Y. Li, M. Fantinato, J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, L. Zhao, and S. Fong, “Message from the SCC 2014 organizing committee”, in: Proc. of the 2014 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, USA, 2014, pp. xvii.


PhD Thesis
  1. J.O. Gutierrez-Garcia, “Interaction dans les systemes multi-agents par le moyen de normes sociales”, CINVESTAV del I.P.N. (Mexico) & Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (France), 2009.

    La réalisation des objectifs communs dans les systèmes multiagents est uniquement possible grâce à l'interaction et la coordination. Afin de mettre en œuvre les deux aspects d'une manière efficace, règles pour orienter le comportement d'un groupe d'agents sont nécessaires, cependant, les règles existantes sont généralement statiques, inflexibles, et inappropriées pour les grands systèmes, où l'interaction dynamique a lieu. Nous proposons la modélisation du comportement des agents par le biais des normes sociales, en particulier les obligations, la délimitation des rôles des agents en tant que composants indépendants, qui peuvent être regroupés en structures organisationnelles. En plus, nous proposons une méthode de composition dynamique pour soutenir l'interaction dynamique dans les organisations. Nous concevons les organisations comme des ensembles d'actions exprimés en termes d'obligations. Nous soutiennent que l'inclusion des obligations dans les conversations des agents, aide à diriger la composition des organisations. Afin d'atteindre cet objectif, nous mettons en place une langue de communication exprimé en obligations, qui définit comment les messages affectent l'état d'interaction des agents, et donc l'accès à leurs organisations. Nous proposons également une méthode pour créer automatiquement un agent générique compositeur, qui est capable de gérer et de composer des organisations.